Home
Aims & Activities
Journals
Publications
Seminars
Archives
AHIlocalcharter
Othercollaborators
Executivecomittee
Registration
Communication
Honours

Journals
   

Vol. XXVIII, No. 1 " 2, January to April, 2015

INTERLINKING OF RIVERS IN NORTH GUJARAT
D. T. Shete

NUMERICAL MODELLING TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF INTERLINKING OF TWO RIVERS TO MITIGATE SEAWATER INTRUSION IN COASTAL AQUIFERS NORTH OF CHENNAI, INDIA
S.P.Rajaveni , Indu S. Nair and *L.Elango

A 3D AQUIFER-MAPPING IS SIGNIFICANT PRIOR TO RIVER-LINKING: GEOPHYSICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES
Shakeel Ahmed

RIVER WATERS-A NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
U. Narayana Raju

INTERLINKING OF RIVERS
S. Satyanarayana

SALINE WATER INTRUSION IN COASTAL AQUIFERS OF BANGLADESH
Amartya Kumar Bhattacharya

EARTH SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING INTEGRATION IN CREATION OF SUSTAINABLE MULTI-VILLAGE SAFE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY IN VIZIANAGARM DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH
B. Uma Shankar, T.S. Brahmananda Chary, R. Rangarajan and D. Muralidharan

THE CONCEPT OF INTER-BASIN TRANSFER OF WATER IN INDIA
Amartya Kumar Bhattacharya, AkshatChandanam, Akshay Thakur and Rahul Meena

WATER QUALITY OF SOUTH WEST NEYVELI BASIN, CUDDALORE DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU
S. Vijayaprabhu and S. Aravindan

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF UTHIRAMERUR TANK IRRIGATION SYSTEM USING SPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES AND PARTICIPATORY APPROACH
M. Muruganantham, *M. Krishnaveni and Sandeep Kumar Patakamuri

QUALITY OF PANCHAYAT / MUNICIPAL TREATED WATER AND REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATED WATER IN THE VILLAGES OF WESTERN DELTA OF WEST GODAVARI DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA
P. Raghuram, T. Rambabu, K. Niharika, M.S.R. Reddy and P. A.R.K. Raju

GROUND WATER RECHARGE THROUGH SUBSURFACE DAMS AND THEIR IMPACTS ON SOIL FERTILITY STATUS AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY
T. Kiran Kumar, N. Jayaraj and P. Kishore Kumar Reddy

ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN THE GODAVARI BASIN
S.Haseena, L.Surinaidu and Giridhar


INTERLINKING OF RIVERS IN NORTH GUJARAT
D. T. Shete

ABSTRACT:

To augment water resources in water deficit areas and over exploited regions of the state , Government of Gujarat has planned to transfer allocated water exclusively to Gujarat from the rivers in Central and South Gujarat regions to water deficit areas and implemented “Sujalam Sufalam Yojana” worth Rs 6,038 crores from the year 2004 . Narmada, Water Resources, Water Supply and Kalpsar Dept. Govt. of Gujarat assigned part of Technical, Social, Economical and Environmental Study on Sujalam Sufalam Project to Water Resources Engineering and Management Institute , Samiala The Institute verified the availability and reliability of water to be diverted to Sujalm Sufalam Spreading Canal linking 21 rivers in North Gujarat , design of the unlined canal , provided the procrdure for initial and normal filling of the canal as it was apprehended that water will not flow beyond initial 10 km out of 337 km length of the canal due to sandy soil of the region and determined water availability, area benefited , recharge and savings in electricity considering 16 different scenarios . .

NUMERICAL MODELLING TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF INTERLINKING OF TWO RIVERS TO MITIGATE SEAWATER INTRUSION IN COASTAL AQUIFERS NORTH OF CHENNAI, INDIA
S.P.Rajaveni , Indu S. Nair and *L.Elango

ABSTRACT:

Population growth and urbanization can create potentially severe problems to the urban water management. For draining the water quickly from the urban conglomerates, proper design of urban water conveyance system is required for which short duration rainfall data is essential. The spatial pattern of flow in the urban watershed is altered due to increased imperviousness and hence there is need to increase the hydraulic efficiency of flow through artificial channels, gutters, storm water drains and collection systems. The 15-minute rainfall is an essential input for determining peak flow rates in storm sewers and highway culverts. It is also useful in rainfall-run-off analysis of urban detention basins. This paper presents the empirical formula to determine the15- minute maximum rainfall from n-hr rainfall data. To develop the equation for prediction of 15 min maximum rainfall from the total rainfall, rainfall is recorded using floating type raingauges located at three different locations with 20 km intervals between the gauges. Data obtained from 61 events is used to fit the power regression by considering total rainfall of the event, multiple regression by considering total rainfall and storm duration, and empirical formula by minimizing the sum of absolute errors between predicted and observed data. The signal to noise (SN) ratio is used to evaluate the performance of approaches for prediction of 15-minitute maximum rainfall. The results of the study indicate that the proposed empirical equation could predict the 15-minite maximum rainfall better than other two equations developed based on the regression. Further, the paper illustrates application of proposed empirical for the disaggregation of event rainfall into 15 min duration pulses.

A 3D AQUIFER-MAPPING IS SIGNIFICANT PRIOR TO RIVER-LINKING: GEOPHYSICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES
Shakeel Ahmed

ABSTRACT:

Rivers are the source of major inland surface water and there exists a very gorgeous river system in nature. There also exists well recognized groundwater system spread almost in all the geological formations . The surface water systems are visible and very well understood. The groundwater systems are neither visible nor well understood. However, the two systems are linked almost at all spatio-temporal scale in nature. In the early days due to limited demand over the availability, people used to manage this resource effectively. With the growing demand resulting from the increasing population, industrialization and enhanced agriculture, the demand has surpassed the availability and we had to find the means of enhancing availability as well curbing the demand to reduce the mismatch and that has given birth to interfering with the natural system. Enhancing availability of groundwater through artificial means has been successful and being practiced at local levels. River-linking of course has two fold objectives viz. (i) reducing excess water from the surplus rivers and (ii) putting the surplus water in the deficit rivers but the most important issue is the medium of this linkage. If the medium of this linkage is ground surface, it is very important to have necessary slope which is not always possible. In addition, there are a large number of issues such as lifting the water by pumping, creating artificial course of flow by displacement of habitants, transportation loss including evaporation being a major factor in arid and semi-arid country.

RIVER WATERS-A NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
U. Narayana Raju

ABSTRACT:

Water is the most precious and also remarkable resource which is considered as ‘Liquid Gold’. Even though India is endowed with sufficient quantity of water in the shape of rivers and lakes it becomes scarce due to livener distribution both in space and time. The remedy lays in transfer the water from surplus basin to deficit basin and also providing interlinking within the same basin. Even though the concept of interlinking the rivers is contemplated more than 60 years back, it is now felt not desirable on a large scale transformation due to changed socio-economic conditions and also environmental hazards. Opposition from States with surplus water and resentment from land loosens due to submersion are also major factors unfavourbale to take up the task.

INTERLINKING OF RIVERS
S. Satyanarayana

ABSTRACT:

Interlinking of rivers in India was initiated by Dr.K.L.Rao during 1970 who suggested linking of northern rivers (Ganga and Brahmaputra) with Southern rivers (Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri). Later Capt. Dastoor suggested a garland canal along the Eastern coast and Western coast connecting North Indian rivers. Both these proposals involve huge cost and heavy lifting requiring electrical power. The NWDC in 1982 formulated proposes for local links instead of large scale transformation from one basin to the other. Considering the present socio economical issues and also environmental hazards, large scale transformation may not be feasible

SALINE WATER INTRUSION IN COASTAL AQUIFERS OF BANGLADESH
Amartya Kumar Bhattacharya

ABSTRACT:

The magnitude of salinity intrusion in coastal areas depends on sensible balance between fresh water flow and saltwater from the sea. The interface between freshwater and saline water is influenced by geology, hydrogeology, ground water heads and groundwater well pumping rates. But fresh water is important issue to counterbalance salinity intrusion at the upstream water intake. To quantify that required fresh water, indeed detailed understanding of the physical phenomena (tidal motion, wind mixing etc, river flow) is a prerequisite. The coastal zone of Bangladesh comprises of part of the flat Ganga Delta, which is criss-crossed by large tidal rivers discharging into the Bay of Bengal. The estuaries and tidal river systems of coastal zone have been formed by long periodical deltaic accretion which was dominated by the historical morphological changes of Ganga and Brahmaputra. The major estuarine rivers of the south-central region are interlinked and fed by numerous smaller channels. The approximate population in the coastal area is 40 million and they are very much vulnerable to the natural disaster along the about 720 km coastline. Saline water intrusion is the main problem in the south-western zone. About 60 and 15 percent of arable land (total 1.0 mha crop-lands) of southwestern and southeastern respectively are affected by salinity in the dry period. This salinity is caused by cyclone and storm surges, high spring tide inundation and capillary actions. Its affect the soil surface and root zones, which decreases the crop production about 0.13 M.T. in every year. The increase of salinity intrusion and decrease of arability will be prevailing due to climate change effect and reducing of flood plain and it may propagate in all over the country. In this situation management of salinity intrusion is the vital issue for Bangladesh. With the mission of saline water proofing by structural management like coastal embankment projects, dam, sluices etc and coastal area zoning as non-structural management to change the land use and other activities can be the vision of sustainable livelihood and environment of Bangladesh.


EARTH SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING INTEGRATION IN CREATION OF SUSTAINABLE MULTI-VILLAGE SAFE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY IN VIZIANAGARM DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH
B. Uma Shankar, T.S. Brahmananda Chary, R. Rangarajan and D. Muralidharan

ABSTRACT:

Groundwater based multi-village drinking water supply scheme requires a considerable quantity of water on a daily basis when compared to the single village water supply schemes. If the requirement is in millions of litres per day, then a perennial river bed source is preferred to sink a jack well or infiltration well to tap the safe base flow water. Proposed Cheepurupalli Scheme scheduled to draw water of 9000 cubic meters per day, the source location was scientifically selected in Nagavalli River near Boddavalasa village followed with geohydrological and hydraulic engineering experiments before development of the source. Presenting the integrated scientific and technological approaches followed in development of a source capable of sustaining more than six years of period and turning into successful scheme among the rural drinking water supply programs.


THE CONCEPT OF INTER-BASIN TRANSFER OF WATER IN INDIA
Amartya Kumar Bhattacharya, AkshatChandanam, Akshay Thakur and Rahul Meena

ABSTRACT:

A basin or a watershed is that area from which all precipitation flows to a single stream. The boundaries of a basin are known as drainage divides; precipitation falling on opposite sides of drainage divides falls onto different basins or watersheds. But a stream may have its tributaries, which bring in the run off from their smaller basins to the main river. In fact in case of large basins, the smallest stream within the basin joins the next higher stream in a rising hierarchy and the process continues till the largest or the Trunk River is reached. Evidently the largest basin comprises the smaller ones, which are identified as sub-basins.


WATER QUALITY OF SOUTH WEST NEYVELI BASIN, CUDDALORE DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU
S. Vijayaprabhu and S. Aravindan

ABSTRACT:

Hydro geochemical investigations were carried out in south western part of Neyveli basin, cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India. Concentration of alkalis in groundwater was represented as per World Health Organization (WHO)’s standards most of the samples represent good category as they are less than 100 ppm. Two samples are moderately suitable for drinking as they are less than 400 ppm in concentration. Based on WHO’s standard less than 100 ppm is categorized as safer zone, Which is suitable for industrial activity, by considering the concentration less than 250 ppm. South eastern part is categorized under moderate suitable zones, where old settlements like Vadalur & Abthanapuram exists. Small area in Northern part of the study area is found to be affected by calcium enrichment in and around Muthandikuppam, where encrustation in water supply of metallic pipes is likely to occur. Calcium concentration in the above zone may be due to dissolution of aragonite minerals in groundwater. Magnesium concentration is classified based on BIS (1998) standard, less than 30 ppm is considered as suitable for drinking. Except two samples all are good for drinking. Considering the limitations of fixing in equal class interval in surfer program it is fixed as 20-40 ppm as potable zones which are found to be prominent from NW to SE part of the study area. Above 40 ppm is categorized as desirable groundwater zones, source of Magnesium is marcasite mineral, which is generally associated with Cuddalore sand stone. In sedimentary rocks magnesium occur in the form of in soluble silicates where, weathering leads to break down of soluble Co3 clay minerals & silica. About 3.03 % of the land available for cultivation suffers from alkalinity and another 3.49% are prone for floods. About 5.23% of the soil comprising of compact sand and about 15 % of cultivated land is subjected to poor soil conditions.


PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF UTHIRAMERUR TANK IRRIGATION SYSTEM USING SPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES AND PARTICIPATORY APPROACH
M. Muruganantham, *M. Krishnaveni and Sandeep Kumar Patakamuri

ABSTRACT:

Evaluating the performance of irrigation systems plays a vital role in attaining agricultural sustainability. Performance measures incorporated in an irrigation system monitoring program can provide a framework for assessing system improvement alternatives. Conventional methods of monitoring and evaluating irrigation systems are tedious and involves huge economic and manual resources. Baseline inventory of irrigated lands in spatial and time domains using spatial information technologies provide an array of performance evaluation. Performance evaluation is a major component of proper management, which in turn is the basis for optimal use of land and water resources. In the present study, questionnaire survey was carried out alongside remote sensing and GIS based analysis to identify problems in adequate, reliable and equitable supply of water delivery system and to analyze the water delivery performance of Uthiramerur tank. The study showed an alarming changes in the tank performance, land use and farm productivity and lack of agreement among the stakeholders of water user associations. If the situation prevails in similar manner, would pose a great threat to agricultural sustainability and nation’s food security.


QUALITY OF PANCHAYAT / MUNICIPAL TREATED WATER AND REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATED WATER IN THE VILLAGES OF WESTERN DELTA OF WEST GODAVARI DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA
P. Raghuram, T. Rambabu, K. Niharika, M.S.R. Reddy and P. A.R.K. Raju

ABSTRACT:

Clean, safe water is vital for everyday life. Water is essential for health, hygiene and the productivity of our community. Although three-quarters of the Earth’s surface is water, only one percent is available for human consumption. Water that comes from municipal wells is considered very safe, because it is tested more than two times per day. Many contaminants can easily get into water and be detrimental to people’s health. It is crucial to remove these wastes so we stay healthy. Unfortunately, some areas of the world are not able to afford treatment for their water, and have to put people at risk of getting sick from drinking contaminated water. RO system does a great job of removing impurities/ contaminants from the water and that is a good thing. The problem with RO system is that they do not discriminate between good stuff and bad stuff, as they remove everything. So, RO water must be re-mineralized once it has been passed through the RO membrane, adding back magnesium and calcium in the proper concentrations. Drinking water samples of both Panchayat (Municipal) treated and RO treated of more than 100 villages of West Godavari Western delta were analyzed and data of 15villages are here presented for the comparison. The study shows that irrespective of the treatment methods the public at large are still not getting potable water.


GROUND WATER RECHARGE THROUGH SUBSURFACE DAMS AND THEIR IMPACTS ON SOIL FERTILITY STATUS AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY
T. Kiran Kumar, N. Jayaraj and P. Kishore Kumar Reddy

ABSTRACT:

Construction of the dams mainly takes place for the storage of the available water resources during rainy seasons and supplies the water to certain places for the particular usage whenever necessary; these are mainly called as subsurface dams. The underground water can be stored and used in the particular place mainly by constructing Sub-surface dams in the area. Construction of the sub-surface dams are mainly carried out across the river in such a manner that the sand deposits available in that region is excavated till the hot rock base is attained and such excavation is carried out the considerable extension on both side of the width of the river for stability in the structure to withstand the forces acting on the structure and mainly the working of the dam takes as the water in the river get percolates deeper into the sand and the flow takes place below the sand. So the structure constructed will acts as obstruction for the flow of the water and certainly ground water table will be enhanced in that region and ultimately money spending for extracting water for irrigation and also agricultural productivity is increased. The work we had taken mainly includes the assessment of subsurface dams in three villages namely Gajukuntapalli, Chowdepally and Mahammdabad cross around Kadiri region.


ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN THE GODAVARI BASIN
S.Haseena, L.Surinaidu and Giridhar

ABSTRACT:

Godavari river is the third largest river in India. The basin falls in six different States viz., Maharasthra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Majority of the population in the State depend on agriculture. The water flows are shared among these states in the Godavari basin. In recent years, due to dwindling nature of rainfall and surface water flows, farmers are forced depend on groundwater for theie agricultural needs. The over exploitation of groundwater leads to depletion of shallow aquifer and it is big threat to food security. For the sustainable management of water resources and sustainable agriculture development, the available water resources and its variation over time need to be well understood. In the present study area, two decadal (1998-2012) groundwater levels and surface water flows are extensively analyzed. The entire Godavari basin is divided into eight sub-basins namely Indravathi, Wainganga, Warda, Pranahita, Manjeera, Middle Godavari, Upper Godavari and Lower Godavari. The analysis of surface water flows over the two decades revealed that no major change in surface water flows of the upstream river basins. But there is drastic decrease in surface water flow in the downstream river areas of Godavari. The average water yields for whole Godavari basin is 332054 MCM and it ranges from 25980 MCM in Upper Godavari basin and 61093 MCM in the Wainganga basin. In the basin water groundwater level rise is controlled by morphological features. The study can help the policy makers to suggest optimal water utilization and to plan optimal cropping pattern based on water availability in the basin.




Copyright © 2003. All rights reserved.